Comprehensive List of Agile Frameworks

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The Agile world is complex. It is full of dozens of frameworks that do different things or are based on slightly different ideas. This is intended to be a comprehensive list of all Agile frameworks. Each framework contains a general bit of information and links to find additional information. Not all of them are isolated to software development projects.

If I missed any frameworks, leave a message in the comments or email me here so I can update accordingly.

If you have better sources for the Agile framework, please also forward them. If there was no “governing body,” sources may be inaccurate and often I just grabbed the best blog post I could find in that case to expand on the information provided. I may not have always used that blog post for the information I added, and just used my own memory if I had some familiarity with the framework.

A

Adaptive Software Development (ASD)

Year of First Known Use:

2000

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Adaptive Software Development

Evolution of ADS

Primary Roles:

N/A

General Overview:

An adaptive lifecycle of Speculate, Collaborate and Learn. It is based on Rapid Application Development (RAD). It strives to focus on the end users of the product and encourages increased transparency between the developers and the clients.

Agile-Agile Hybrid

Year of First Known Use:

?

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

20%

More Information:

What is Hybrid Agile, Anyway?

Primary Roles:

Depends on the frameworks

General Overview:

A mix of two or more Agile frameworks. Scrum and XP are widely used together (which seems like it would just make XP). The goal is to try and take the best practices from each framework. Also called Blended Agile

*Technically, Scrumban is an Agile-Agile Hybrid.


Agile Manufacturing

Year of First Known Use:

?

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Agile Manufacturing

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

4 Key Elements:

  1. Modular Product Design
  2. Information Technology/ Automation
  3. Corporate Partners
  4. Knowledge Culture

Places a strong focus on rapidly responding to customers with short production timeframes and design turnaround. It has a strong relationship with Lean Manufacturing, but with more flexible development and processes. It can be used with Lean or an enhancement to Lean.

Appears to be related to the rise of rapid prototyping ability of 3D printers. My cynical side tells me it is just Lean with 3D printers, given an Agile name to sound fancy and modern.


Agile-Waterfall Hybrid

Year of First Known Use:

?

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A*

More Information:

Blending Agile and Waterfall

Hybrid Waterfall

Agile/Waterfall Hybrid Approach

Primary Roles:

Usually a project manager and typical waterfall/predictive supporting staff

General Overview:

A mix of Agile and Predictive project management practices. Sometimes referred to as just “Agile” or “Scrum”.

*It has been my experience that most people who claim to do Scrum, actually do an Agile-Waterfall Hybrid approach. Scrum is the largest reported framework in use. It is my belief this is the actual largest in use. I have been on more than a few “Scrum” teams with a Project Manager and no Sprints.


Agnostic Agile

Year of First Known Use:

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Agnostic Agile

Thinking Beyond the Agile Manifesto – Agnostic Agility

Primary Roles:

Undefined

General Overview:

A non-dogmatic approach. Not a framework, but a set of principles countering the Agile Manifesto. The philosophy behind it states that choosing a framework may actually hinder agility, it may not be the best thing to do.

12 Principles of Agnostic Agility:

  1. To put my customer first, making them independent.
  2. To do my best, complementing theory with practical experience.
  3. To tailor agility to context.
  4. To understand hindering constraints and work to remove them.
  5. To share, learn and improve.
  6. To respect frameworks and their practitioners.
  7. To acknowledge unknowns and seek help.
  8. To never mislead and to never misrepresent.
  9. To remember that agility is not the end goal.
  10. To acknowledge that dogmatism is non-agile.
  11. To recognize that there is more to agile than agile.
  12. To give to the community as it has given to me.

B

Blended Agile

See Agile-Agile Hybrid or Agile-Waterfall Hybrid

C

Crystal / Crystal Methods / Crystal Clear

Year of First Known Use:

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Agile Framework Crystal

Primary Roles:

Undefined

General Overview:

A family of human-powered, adaptive, ultra light, ‘stretch to fit’ software development methodologies. It is meant to address the issue of multiple characteristics and team size between projects.

Complexity Leadership / Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS)

Year of First Known Use:

2001

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information

Complexity Leadership

Complexity Theory: The Most Important Part of Agile

Primary Roles:

Organizational Level

General Overview

Based upon Complexity Theory and Chaos Theory – which in turn come from Systems Theory. The goal is to build the organization with the ability to adapt to changes quickly while recognizing that it is a complex system that must be balanced between organized and chaotic.

  1. Good Enough Vision
  2. Minimum Specifications
  3. Self-Organization
  4. Wicked Questions
  5. Shadow Systems
  6. Emergence

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D

Disciplined Agile Framework (DA) – Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD)

Year of First Known Use:

2009

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Introduction to DAD

Primary Roles:

Team Lead, Product Owner, Team Member, Architecture Owner, Stakeholder

General Overview:

Six Lifecycles – Agile, Continuous Deliver: Agile, Exploratory, Lean, Continuous Delivery: Lean, Program

This is a hybrid approach intended to put people first and make learning a strong focus of the process. It is built more for large distributed organizations.


Domain-Driven Design (DDD)

Year of First Known Use:

2004

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Domain-Driven Design

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

Three Core Principles:

  • Focus on the core domain and domain logic
  • Base complex design on models of the domain
  • Constantly collaborate with domain experts in order to improve the application model and resolve any emerging domain-related issues

Builds upon Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. The aim is to make the creation of complex applications easier by connecting related pieces or modules together in a constantly evolving model. It encourages iterative development.


Dynamic Systems Development Methodology (DSDM)*

Year of First Known Use:

1994

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

DSDM Handbooks

A Full Lifecycle Agile Approach: Dynamic Systems Development Methodology (DSDM)

Primary Roles:

Business Sponsor, Business Visionary, Project Manager, Technical Coordinator, Business Analyst, Team Leader, Solution Developer, Business Ambassador, Solution Tester

General Overview:

8 Core Principles:

  1. Focus on the business need
  2. Deliver on time
  3. Collaborate
  4. Never compromise quality
  5. Build incrementally from firm foundations
  6. Develop iteratively
  7. Communicate continuously and clearly
  8. Demonstrate control

DSDM was created in part due to issues with Rapid Application Development (RAD).  Its focus is on the full project lifecycle from beginning to end. Originally created for software development, it has been pushing further outside of that realm.

Uses well beyond software engineering projects, with expansions in program management, service delivery, and more.

*They just call it DSDM now

What is DSDM from Agile Business Consortium on Vimeo.


E

Extreme Programming (XP)

Year of First Known Use: 1996
Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using: 1%
More Information: http://www.extremeprogramming.org/

Extreme Programming (XP)

Primary Roles:  Coach, Customers, Developers, and Testers

General Overview:

5 Major Rules – Planning, Managing, Designing, Coding, Testing

5 Core Values –  Simplicity, Communication, Feedback, Respect, Courage

Extreme Programming focuses on bringing in best practices to software engineering. It stresses code refactoring and paired programming. Highly values teamwork, collaboration, and shared workspaces.

12 Practices of XP

  1. Pair Programming
  2. Planning Game
  3. Test Driven Development (TDD)
  4. Whole team
  5. Continuous Integration
  6. Refactoring
  7. Small Releases
  8. Sustainable Pace
  9. Collective Code Ownership
  10. Coding Standard
  11. Simple Design
  12. System Metaphor

Extreme Programming Flow Chart


F

FAST Agile

Year of First Known Use:

?

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

FAST Agile Scaled Technology

Primary Roles:

Product Director, Stakeholder, Developer, Tribe Resource, Swarm Steward, Feature Steward

General Overview:

FAST Rules:

  • Dot the right thing
  • Be a team player
  • Be a T-Shaped player
  • Strive for excellence in your craft

FAST Principles:

  • The right people will work on the right stories
  • The right discussions will happen at the right time, with the right people to resolve dependencies and emerge the design
  • Whatever happens is the only thing that could have
  • Work will emerge and get done in the order that it needs to happen

FAST Agile has a strong focus on trusting the developers and self-organizing teams. Its creation was inspired by Open Space Technology; a method for organizing and running meetings that stresses the importance of focusing on a specific and important task.

Origins of Spotify Squad


Feature Driven Development (FDD)

Year of First Known Use:

1997

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Practical Guide to FDD

FDD and Agile Modeling

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

  1. Develop an Overall Model
    • Output: High-Level Object Model and Notes
  2. Build a Features List
    • Output: List of Features grouped into sets and subject areas
  3. Plan By Feature
    • Output: Development Plan; Class and Feature Set Owners
  4. Design By Feature
    • Output: Design Package
  5. Build The Feature
    • Output: Programming, Testing, Packaging

Aimed at optimizing customer value by focusing on the features delivered.


Four Disciplines of Execution (4DX)

Year of First Known Use: ?
Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using: N/A
More Information:

The 4 Disciplines of Execution

Execution is the key! The approach of 4DX

Primary Roles:

Organization-Wide

General Overview:

4 Disciplines:

  1.  Focus on the wildly important
  2.  Act on the lead measures
  3.  Keep a compelling scoreboard
  4.  Create a cadence of accountability

4 Challenges:

  1. Managers and work teams don’t know the goal
  2. Managers and teams don’t know what to do to achieve the goal
  3. They don’t keep score or track of key measures of success
  4. They are not held accountable

Focuses on creating a “Culture of Execution” that embeds the disciplines into an organization. A common approach is brought in at every level of the organization. This is not a project approach, but a whole organizational approach.


I

Iterative Model / Iterative Development

Year of First Known Use:

1980’s

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

3%

More Information:

Iterative Model

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

Iterative, not necessarily an incremental approach to software development. You may not release after each iteration and the iteration process may not be a standard length.

It may begin with an initial large release of a product. That product may be built upon in iterations, progressively adding features. Those features may not be released until a new version, or they may be released after each iteration incrementally building the software up.


K

Kanban (Agile Kanban, Just In Time Delivery)

Year of First Known Use:

1940’s in Lean as JIT Manufacturing

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

5%

More Information:

Certified Kanban Coach; The Official Training Material

Toyota Production System

What is Kanban?

Primary Roles:

Organization-Wide or Project-Wide

General Overview:

Five Core Practices

  • Define and Visualize the Workflow
  • Limit Work-In-Progress (WIP)
  • Measure and Manage Flow
  • Make Process Policies Explicit
  • Use Models to Suggest Improvement

The first thing you need to know about Kanban is that it does not require the use of a kanban board and it is more than just the kanban board. You should only have a visual method of displaying work progress, the kanban board is one such method.

It is a non-iterative Agile process that can also be incremental. It models a more natural way to work with a continuous flow. It is flexible enough to be used outside of projects or as an entire organizational Agile approach.


L

Lean Software Development

Year of First Known Use:

1980’s/1990’s

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

7 Guiding Principles of Lean Development

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

7 Guiding Principles

  • Eliminate Waste
  • Keep Learning
  • Defer Decisions
  • Deliver Fast
  • Empower the Team
  • Build Integrity In
  • See The Whole

This is not so much a framework or methodology as it is a set of guiding principles.


M

The Mercurial Perspective

Year of First Known Use:

Conceptual (2017-2019)

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

0%

More Information:

The Mercurial Perspective

Principles of the Mercurial Perspective

Kanban: The Mercurial Perspective

Primary Roles: Organization-Wide

General Overview:

Principles of the Mercurial Perspective:

1. Treat Humans Like Humans
2. Engage in Constant and Shared Learning
3. Continuously Work to Improve Based on Past Results
4. Strive to be Transparent in Your Thoughts, Actions, and Statuses
5. Unite the Organization Under the Shared Motivations
6. Embrace the Idea that From Quality Comes Customer Satisfaction
7. Limit Bureaucracy by Simplifying and Streamlining Your Processes
8. Do Not Limit Options for the Sake of Agility
9. Expect Change and Adapt in the Most Efficient and Knowledge-Driven Method

An enhancement to Kanban that I created/ am creating. The continuous workflow of Agile Kanban / Just in Time Delivery with a set of principles and practices to become a more human-centered and streamlined organization. A more Agile Agile.
This is not for software development projects, this an entire organizational agility approach.

Kanban Mercurial Perspective Flow


Modern Agile

Year of First Known Use: ?
Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using: N/A
More Information http://modernagile.org/
Primary Roles: None Defined

General Overview

An expansion or broader interpretation of the Agile Manifesto for Software Development.

Four Guiding Principles:

  1. Make People Awesome
  2. Experiment and Learn Rapidly
  3. Deliver Value Continuously
  4. Make Safety A Prerequisite

N

Nexus

Year of First Known Use:

2015

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Nexus Guide

Scaling Scrum with Nexus

Primary Roles:

The Product Owner, Scrum Masters, Nexus Integration Team Members, Development Team

General Overview:

A way to scale Scrum up using multiple Scrum teams. It is based on the Scrum Guide with an additional Nexus team that is made up of a Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Integration Team Members.

Nexus Depiction


O

Optum Scaled Agile Methodology (OSAM)

Year of First Known Use:

2015/2016

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

United Healthgroup/Optum only

More Information:

Scaled Agile Lessons Learned

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

Proprietary Agile variation that is similar to SAFe – Scaled Agile Framework. Implemented at Optum and United Health Group.

R

Rapid Application Development (RAD)

Year of First Known Use:

1980’s

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

RAD Model

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

RAD Model:

  • Business Modeling
  • Data Modeling
  • Process Modeling
  • Application Generation
  • Testing and Turnover

Software development methodology that focuses on prototyping over extensive planning. Most iterative Agile variations descended from RAD.


Rational Unified Process (RUP)

Year of First Known Use:

1980’s

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

IBM RUP

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

 6 Best Practices

  1. Develop software iteratively
  2. Manage requirements
  3. Use component-based architectures
  4. Visually model software
  5. Verify software quality
  6. Control changes to the software

A software development process that divides the development into four phases


S

Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)

Year of First Known Use:

2011

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

SAFe

SAFe Flow

Primary Roles (varies based on solution):

Epic owners, Enterprise Architect, System Engineer, Product Management, Release Train Engineer, Business Owners, Dev Team, Product Owner

General Overview:

Five Core Competencies of the Lean Enterprise: Lean-Agile Leadership, Team, and Technical Agility, DevOps and Release on Demand, Business Solutions and Lean Systems Engineering, Lean Portfolio Management

A framework intended for larger Agile teams, enterprise software development. It uses integrated principles and practices of Lean, Agile, and DevOps. SAFe utilizes practices from Scrum, Kanban, and XP.


Scrum

Year of First Known Use: *1986 or 1993
Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using: 56%
More Information: The Scrum Guide
Primary Roles:  Scrum Master, Product Owner, Development Team

General Overview:

Three Pillars – Transparency, Inspection, Adaptation

Five Values – commitment, courage, focus, openness, and respect

Scrum is intended to be a framework for developing, delivering, and sustaining complex products with a strong focus on releasing a piece or increment of “Done” product at the end of each iteration (Sprint).

 *Who created the idea of Scum is disputed. It is commonly credited to Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland, making the first known use in 1993.

However, the term “Scrum” was first used in the Harvard Business review in 1986 to reference a high performing and cross-functional team (https://www.scrumalliance.org/learn-about-scrum).

Scrum Framework


ScrumBan

Year of First Known Use: At least 2008 or earlier
Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using: 8%
More Information:

What is Scrumban?

Scrum-ban

Primary Roles:  Scrum Master, Product Owner, Development Team

General Overview:

Three Pillars – Transparency, Inspection, Adaptation

Five Values – commitment, courage, focus, openness, and respect

Uses the continuous process improvement, limited Work In Progress (WIP), and monitoring process flows of Kanban within the Scrum framework.


Scrum of Scrums

Year of First Known Use:

2001

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Scrum of Scrums

IT Journal

Primary Roles:

 Scrum Master(s), Product Owner, Development Team(s)

General Overview:

Three Pillars – Transparency, Inspection, Adaptation

Five Values – commitment, courage, focus, openness, and respect

It consists of multiple teams, each utilizing Scrum, collaborating together on a product or project. The goal is to scale up Scrum to server larger development projects. Each team has a Scrum Master, but they each work from the same Product Backlog.


Spotify Agile / Spotify Squad

Year of First Known Use:

N/A (After 2006)

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

1%

More Information:

Spotify Engineering Culture

Primary Roles:

Leader, Squad Member

General Overview:

Agile matters more than Scrum. Spotify Agile was designed to focus on the Agile culture rather than a particular framework. It has a heavy focus on knowledge sharing. Within Spotify Agile there are three types of Squads – Feature, Client App, Infrastructure. Doesn’t worry about releasing features that aren’t done, it releases and hides the features to help find issues with integration earlier.

A modification of FAST Agile


Sustainable Cultural Agile Release in the Enterprise (SCARE)

Year of First Known Use:

-No known usage. (Conceptualized 2014)

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

0%

More Information:

Introducing the SCARE Method

Primary Roles:

N/A

General Overview:

Focus on the group/team constraining the flow and work to increase coordination between the other groups and that group.

Agile SCARE


T

Test-Driven Development (TDD)

Year of First Known Use:

1998

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

TDD

TDD By Example

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

Has a relationship with Extreme Programming, in which one possible practice in Extreme Programming was to write the test first and then code to the test. It did not receive a name in its own right until about 2002.

U

Unified Process (UP) / Unified Software Development Process (USDP)

Year of First Known Use:

1980’s

Percentage of Agile Teams Report Using:

N/A

More Information:

Understand the Unified Process

USDP

Primary Roles:

General Overview:

The origins of the Rational Unified Process.

It is driven by use-cases with an iterative and incremental development cycle. It is broader than RUP in the project size and less oriented on the details of how to develop the software.



Sources of Information:

  1. VersionOne 12th Annual State of Agile Report
  2. http://www.extremeprogramming.org/
  3. A Brief History of Scrum
  4. The Scrum Guide
  5. https://www.scrumalliance.org/learn-about-scrum
  6. What is Scrumban?
  7. https://www.scaledagileframework.com/
  8. https://www.scaledagileframework.com/about/
  9. Scrum of Scrums
  10. Spotify Engineering Culture
  11. Introducing the SCARE Method
  12. Adaptive Software Development
  13. Evolution of ADS
  14. What is Hybrid Agile, Anyway?
  15. Blending Agile and Waterfall
  16. Hybrid Waterfall
  17. Agile/Waterfall Hybrid Approach
  18. Agnostic Agile
  19. Agile Framework Crystal
  20. Introduction to DAD
  21. DSDM Handbooks
  22. The 4 Disciplines of Execution
  23. Agile Manufacturing
  24. FAST Agile Scaled Technology
  25. Iterative Model
  26. Certified Kanban Coach; The Official Training Material
  27. Toyota Production System
  28. Tale of Two Kanbans
  29. 7 Guiding Principles of Lean Development
  30. The Mercurial Perspective
  31. Principles of the Mercurial Perspective
  32. Kanban: The Mercurial Perspective
  33. Nexus Guide
  34. Scaling Scrum with Nexus
  35. RAD Model
  36. TDD By Example
  37. TDD
  38. Understand the Unified Process
  39. USDP
  40. Scaled Agile Lessons Learned
  41. Complexity Leadership
  42. http://modernagile.org/

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Categories: 4DX Agile, Agile, Agnostic Agile, DSDM, Feature-Driven Development, Kanban, Lean Six Sigma, Scrum, Test-Driven Development, The Mercurial Perspective, XP

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